Climate Alarmist Dr. Joe Romm claims atmospheric CO2 will rise to 910 parts per million, ppm, by the year 2100 where today it is 390 ppm, a 233% increase in 84 years and turn America into Death Valley. We simulate this with two 2.5 liter plastic bottles for a shocking outcome costing less than $10, with no million Dollar grant or trips to exotic places to read papers, eat truffles and drink Champaign on your Federal tax Dollars.
In addition to the bottles, we need two lab “stick” thermometers, 650 milliliters of pure water, 1/8th tsp. of baking soda and a few drops of Distilled White Vinegar to simulate the 2100 AD atmosphere of America as predicted by Dr. Romm. We suggest this be done in every General Science classroom in America. It is low in cost and highly educational.
The bottles must be clear, not tinted, and “2.5 liters.” There are other sizes and it is critical. Lab thermometers are $2.39 each on Ebay. Baking soda and “White Distilled Vinegar” are common pantry items plus a medicine dropper is common in most homes or $1.00 in a drug store.
Thermometer accuracy is easily confirmed by putting them into a tall glass of ice and water, where they should say 0° Celsius. Then, into a pot of boiling water where they should say 100° Celsius if you are at sea level. If you are above sea level the boiling point will be lower.
In Chicago, at 650 ft, it is 99.5° C, which is the level for most of the nation east of the Mississippi, but in Denver, at 5280 ft. it is 95° C and the far west is all over the place with Death Valley below sea level where the boiling point is 101°C! Nonetheless, we are only interested in how thermometers track one another. They must be consistent. If one is a degree warmer than the other it must be consistently so through the 20 to 35 degree range.
Put both thermometers in a glass two cup measure with one cup of cold tap water. Wait a few minutes then read the thermometers. They will say 15 to 20 degrees. Add one cup of hot water from that tap and track the change as it will rise from the temperature of house cold water to the higher temperature of the hot and cold water mix. And, they should move through the range together or with the same difference consistently. If not return the unit not showing the correct temperature in ice water.
Plastic bottle caps are drilled by a Phillips screwdriver with a 1/4 inch shaft with the tip held over a candle flame for 30 seconds. The handle insulates heat so you can hold it. The hot tip goes through plastic like butter leaving a hole just large enough for a thermometer. Both thermometers are pushed into the caps three inches while the plastic is soft. On cooling they freeze in place, but can be removed later with careful twisting using your thumb and forefinger near the cap.
The volume of the “2.5 liter” soda bottle is actually 2,725 milliliters. Use bottled water, to avoid municipal water chlorine and fluorine, putting 325 milliliters into each for a net air volume of 2.4 liters over water. This simulates Earth’s air as 71% is covered by water and the green areas put almost as much water vapor into air as do the seas.
2.4 liters is 1/10th “molar volume” of air at 20° Celsius, the normal room temperature in the United States. “Molar” refers to “mole,” a contraction of “molecular” and means the volume of a gas with a mass of one molecular weight in grams.
For experimental work we use molar volumes for accuracy. The details are cumbersome so we omit them here, but present them completely at:
We set up the two bottles, one with water alone, labeled “2016 AD” air with 390 ppm of CO2 naturally and “2100 AD” with 910 ppm artificially. This can be done outside, but we favor a window sill as these bottles are easily tipped by a breeze and window glass does not block infrared, IR, energy. When the sun is low little IR comes through all the air. After 10 AM, when the sun angle is above 45 degrees, IR passes through less air and the glass where it cannot when the angle is less than 45 degrees. Be sure the thermometers are shaded from direct sun with foil “hats,” only reading the temperature of the air in the flasks.
The two temperatures rise as the sun elevates and fall slowly after noon until 3 PM, then fall quickly as solar radiation passes through more atmosphere.
To test the effect of increasing CO2 in our atmosphere from the 390 ppm of today to 910 ppm for the year 2100 AD as claimed by Dr. Joe Romm, we only need to put half a 1/8th teaspoon of baking soda in the “2100 AD” bottle, swirling to dissolve it. We need 1.25 drops of White Distilled Vinegar and can make a perfect dose by taking two drops of the acid, add six drops of water and then use five drops of that solution in the simulator.
Put the cap with thermometer on and let it sit overnight to react fully to create the Romm 910 ppm CO2 air of 2100 AD. Put the two bottles in a window sill and record their temperatures each hour. What do we see?
According to Dr. Romm the 2100 AD bottle will get hot, going over 40 Celsius degrees, 104 Fahrenheit! But what happens? The 2100 AD bottle tracks precisely with the 2016 bottle air with less CO2 in it! The CO2 was an insignificant component of the atmosphere at 390 PPM and it would be at 910 PPM. It is just that simple. As we have seen, “warmists” are prone to overplay everything from polar bear deaths to all the ice melting at the poles when there are more polar bears than ever in history, probably because they are getting fat on the Five Star garbage left by warmist scientists.
For 150 years atmospheric scientists have required a gas must have at least one percent of the atmosphere to be significant. We can add enough CO2 to make that the case in our simulator. Our one-tenth molar volume simulator
needs 24 ml of CO2 which we can generate by taking four drops of the acid, adding one drop of water and then using four drops of that in the second bottle for a 20% dilution.
One percent is 10,000 parts per million, ppm, which shows the real effect of CO2 in the atmosphere and by having a “control” bottle tracking ordinary air over water we will see that it is a cooling component.
If Dr. Romm were correct the air in the “2100 AD” bottle would heat faster and more than the “2016 AD” flask, perhaps going over 40º C by noon, but it declines! This dashes all alarmist claims. Without them they will get no grants, book contracts, TV appearances or tenure. When realized it will kill the gravy train of academia. This is an undeniable fact! Many of academia feel they are entitled to wealth and fame because they are “smart.”
Virtually everything written and published about “global warming” and/or “climate change” has been fraudulent and done by those seeking political power, government grants, high-paying government jobs or academic tenure as the colleges and universities are dependent on Federal money. It is just another tale of corruption in America and you can prove it with a two soda bottles, a box of baking soda, a bottle of vinegar and one medicine dropper.