“Climate change,” is real, but it is not what Barack Obama, Jim Hansen, Al Gore, Michael Mann, Phil Jones and Heidi Cullen claim. Our daily high temperatures have been in decline for 27 years, per the below graph, but since 1880, with a few bumps up, but the overall trend was down.
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When a 1971 group of six NASA scientists, including Jim Hansen, made a presentation to Congress saying an ice age was coming, they were much closer to the truth than in 1988 when Jim Hansen returned to Congress to warn of global warming. The difference was that Al Gore’s new tax and bureau ideas rang Congressional bells. So here we are with Hillary Clinton planning to end the debate by putting all deniers in prison. As a threatened person in this fiasco, I offer a “jury ready” presentation to all my fellows.
The atmosphere is a closed system that obeys the laws of gaseous chemistry. Gravity is a better bottle than any we make. No more than 100 kilograms of gas leave our 6000 billion metric ton atmosphere every year thanks to gravity. We will never run out of air in spite of having no apparent lid on a planet open to outer space.
Molecules bump each other five million times every second. We know that as is the frequency as we hear it on short wave at 5000 khz. One “kiloHertz,” is 1,000 cycles per second, so 5000 is five million cycles or Hertz. If you tune to that frequency on short wave radio you will hear WWV, the Atomic Clock time signal from Colorado, but occasionally they go off the air and the hiss you hear then is air molecular collisions making a weak, but detectable, signal.
To leave the atmosphere one molecule has to be hit at an angle pointing out of the atmosphere many times to kick it up to the 25,000 mile per hour escape velocity. It is a rare event, but with a virtually infinite number of molecules, it happens. Nearly all are hydrogen or helium, which we do not need. We will never run out of breathable air. Man will be gone as a consequence of nature. We have to get out of the way for the next species.
Water vapor is the only significant gas heating the atmosphere with one to four percent of the mass. Infrared heat waves, IR, are not captured by any other gas, but carbon dioxide, CO2, which is insignificant in quantity with four one-hundreths of one percent, but Jim Hansen has demonized it and made it a monster for money and fame. He is a multimillionaire in a profession where vows of poverty are printed on the backs of Ph.D. degrees. He is a hero in academia, now a place with casino values. Professional integrity on the college campus is a myth. They’re like banana republics without bullets. Been there, done that; got some scars.
In terms of temperature, water vapor controls the atmosphere. Water can exist as a solid, liquid or gas in the range of temperatures on Earth and where 71% of our surface is covered by water the atmosphere is generally saturated with it, ranging from one to four percent. Warmer is wetter; colder is drier.
Water vapor has been troublesome in science as it condenses in instruments, causing corrosion and by changing state, the physics of the sample. For 100 years science experimented only with “dry” air, that from which all water had been removed which meant what we learned of the gases did not apply to nature so the history of atmospheric science was deeply flawed. Early in the 20th century that practice was corrected.
Carbon dioxide is the only other gas in air that absorbs infrared radiation significantly, but only one-seventh as well as water vapor. CO2 is a “trace” species in air with only 0.04% percent and is officially ignored in weather science as “insignificant.” Only scoundrels talk of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Where water vapor condenses to liquid from the atmosphere we can use the Le Chatelier Principle for the physics of the atmosphere. It says, “The product of the concentrations of the reactants over the product of the concentrations of the products in a reaction is a constant.” Water vapor is the reactant and water liquid is the product. The equation is:
[H2Og] x [CO2g] / [H2Ol] = Kt
The brackets enclosing terms indicate “moles per liter.” A “mole” is the mass of the molecule in atomic weight units, awu, as grams. Where water has two hydrogens, with one atomic weight unit each, and one oxygen with 16 atomic weight units a “mole” of water has a mass of 18 grams. For CO2 it would be 44 grams as carbon has 12 awu and adding 32 for two oxygen atoms equals 44 grams per mole. If we take 18 grams of water and 44 grams of CO2 we will have the same number of molecules of each. “K” means “constant” and “t” is the Absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin.
In the 19th century Lord Kelvin discovered if he reduced the temperature of a gas one Celsius degree the volume decreased by 1/273rd. He reasoned that if he reduced the temperature by 273 Celsius degrees the gas would vanish! So he called that “Absolute Zero” and defined it as zero degrees Kelvin, or Absolute, which gave him a scale for computing changes in gas volumes with changes in temperature; a great contribution.
The addition of CO2 to the atmosphere changes the amount of water vapor air can hold and water vapor is the principle air heater. We can manipulate the Le Chatelier equation to model this situation by solving for water vapor:
[H2Og] = Kt x [H2Ol] / [CO2g]
The equation says as we increase the quantity of CO2 the quantity of water vapor declines. Where water vapor is seven times better at absorbing energy from sunlight the temperature declines. This is in full agreement with the real temperature record of the last 27 years and not the one Jim Hansen’s Goddard Space Sciences Institute falsified since 1988.
The irony of this is that if the promoters of “global warming” and man-caused “climate change” had been honest in their work they would have a legitimate issue against carbon, but now they have sentenced themselves to failure and ridicule. Nonetheless, man’s production of CO2 is only 3.2% of the total produced as 93.6% is produced naturally with the bulk coming from the decomposition of limestone. There is no way to control that. Man is insignificant on this planet and will be gone in a few thousand generations and we do not have to worry about climate change.