A simple device assembled for less than three dollars, discounting the soda you consume, can end an era that has cost America more than $1 trillion! This “bomb” does not explode: It implodes the myth of “global warming.”
The device sits on a south-facing window sill on a sunny noon hour with a clear blue sky. It is a 2.5 liter soda bottle, rinsed clean of the sugary fluid it contained. It has 325 milliliters of water as the volume was 2,725 milliliters and it now contains 2,400 milliliters of air.
The cap has two holes made by a quarter inch shaft Phillips screwdriver heated for 20 seconds over a candle. In one hole there is a basic laboratory thermometer with a range of -10° Celsius to +110º Celsius. It has a foil collar shading a thermometer showing 20º Celsius degrees. We will add CO2 to see what happens to the temperature of the air in the flask.
Some scientists say the temperature will rise while others argue it will not or even fall! This device settles the “global warming” issue in the way of science: experimentally. Physical science shows with great precision what happens when we turn to “stoichiometry,” the quantitative relationships of the reactants as we have refined this work for over 2,000 years.
For the trial we use small quantities of baking soda, sodium bicarbonate, and White Distilled Vinegar, acetic acid, as both are pure, being food products. Baking soda is 100% sodium bicarbonate, while White Distilled Vinegar is 5% acetic acid in water, which means we can measure it very accurately.
To determine the quantities of baking soda and vinegar for the trial, we use chemical relationships based on the relative weights of the elements in the compounds in a chemical reaction to produce precise amounts of CO2. This is “stoichiometry.”
Hydrogen, the lightest element, is defined as one atomic weight unit and has two atoms in each molecule so it has a “mole” weight of two grams and gas volume of 24,000 ml at 20 Celsius degrees. For a “mole” we use the number of atomic weight units in grams. The Mole or “Molar,” gas volume is the same for 32 grams of oxygen, O2. 28 grams of nitrogen, N2, or 44 grams of CO2, carbon dioxide. Every gas has a Molar volume of 24,000 ml at 20°C and each has the same number of molecules.
Air is a mixture of three principle gases and eight “trace” gases, those with less than 1%. Trace gases are present, but of no consequence. CO2 is in that class with 0.04% and was officially insignificant in atmospheric physics until the Federal government wanted to tax and control it. They purchased significance for CO2 your money, lots of it…
Water vapor controls the atmosphere as it has about three percent presence in the lower atmosphere, under 5000 feet, where we live and have weather. It is one of the few gases absorbing infrared, IR, energy from sunlight and it is the only gas changing quantity in air as it can exist as a solid, liquid or gas in the range of temperatures on Earth. It absorbs infrared, IR, from sunlight far better than any gas in air. Nitrogen and oxygen capture so little infrared energy they are classified “transparent” to IR.
In the “bomb” we generate quantities of CO2 to add to the present day 400 parts per million, ppm, of CO2 using baking soda, NaHCO3, and White Distilled Vinegar, five percent acetic acid, CH3COOH, in the reaction:
NaHCO3 + CH3COOH —> CH3COONa + H2O + CO2g
84g 60g 82g 18g 44g
Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3, plus acetic acid, CH3COOH, react to make sodium acetate, water and carbon dioxide gas, 44 g of CO2 is 24,000 ml, at 20°C, but we want only a small amount.
Today air has 0.04% CO2, 400 parts per million, ppm, that is 9.60 ml per molar volume of air by 24,000 x 0.0004 = 9.60 ml or 0.96 ml/0.1 mole for our 1/10th molar volume bottle.
The test will be to add amounts of CO2 that “warmers” say will heat the atmosphere. Rising temperature in the bottle will confirm their claim.
The equation shows equal numbers of moles of baking soda and acetic acid make equal numbers of moles of sodium acetate, water and carbon dioxide.
0.96 ml of CO2 is only 0.96 ml/24,000 ml/mole = 0.00004 moles of CO2 in our “bomb” naturally.
A leading “warmer,” Dr. Joe Romm says by 2100 AD we will exceed 1,000 ppm of CO2 at the rate we are increasing it now and this will make Earth unlivable. Dr. Steven Hawking, famous physicist, makes a similar claim and adds we will all have to leave Earth for Mars in 200 years having destroyed our planet by increasing CO2 in the atmosphere. We do this experimentally in our test flask to see if these two celebrated Ph.D. scientists are correct in warning, “We’re all gonna die!”
5% White Distilled Vinegar has 50 grams of acetic acid in every liter of solution which is 50g/82g/mole = 0.61 mole/liter or 0.00061 mole/milliliter which would make 0.00061mole x 24,000 ml/mole = 14.6 ml of CO2 gas if we drop it into the flask with baking soda in solution so we have something to work with as there is a very easy way to get very small, accurate measures of chemicals as used in science and medicine.
The physics of water is such that one drop is 1/20th milliliter if it is formed with a medicine dropper, soda straw, stick or leaf. This fact has made it possible for pharmacists and physicians to dispense medicines with great accuracy easily by counting drops.
Where White Distilled Vinegar is 5% acetic acid, CH3CHOOH, or 50 grams/liter or 0.05g/ml, or 0.0025g/drop or 0.0025g/84g/mole = 0.0000298 mole that will produce 0.0000298 x 24,000 = 0.714 ml of CO2 per drop of vinegar we add to a baking soda solution in the flask. We can put a gram, 1/2 of 1/4 tsp, in the flask water to be sure of more than enough to react with the acid completely and entirely.
Where 0.96 ml of CO2 in our flask is 400 ppm we can see that an additional 0.714 ml of CO will be 0.714/0.96 x 400 = 298 ppm of CO2 to the flask for a total of 400 + 298 = 698 ppm and per Drs. Romm and Hawking we should see the temperature in the flask rise dramatically, but if we do this on a sunny day at noon when the sun’s heating effect is peaked nothing happens!
If you set up the “bomb” flask in a sunny, south-facing window, you will see the temperature rise until noon. It stops, then declines with the waning solar output. This is the reason we normally have a “control” flask where nothing is added so we can see the normal, unchanged behavior of the control flask, but for the “bomb” demo it is unnecessary. In any case the 10:00 AM to noon rise is normal as solar radiation travels through less air.
Let us continue and add another drop to go to 996 ppm which is where Dr. Romm has predicted America would be unlivable in 2100 AD if we continue to add CO2 at today’s rate. Adding several drops of CO2 fail to increase the temperate in the flask! Drs. Romm and Hawking have lied to us or they are not as smart as we have been told! They certainly have not done the simple experimental work that would reveal the truth. Or have they known all along and been lying to us so they could get more grants for their alarming papers, pronouncements and media appearances.
We say this scam has been so pernicious and evil it has even bought off many of our most august institutions including the American Meteorological Society, AMS, National Science Foundation, National Geographic and more! While the AMS is not on record, in 1988 if someone had gone to them the day after Dr. James Hansen and Albert Gore, Jr. had made their historic presentation to the Joint Congressional Committee on Science and Technology alarming them with “CO2, we’re all gonna die!” and asked the AMS about CO2, they would have said “A gas with only 0.04% presence in the atmosphere is of no consequence,” but the Obama Administration found a way to buy them off for $1 million annual stipends.
Let us continue to that point and add enough White Distilled Vinegar to get to the 1% lower limit standard the AMS adhered to for 100 years. All we have to do is add 30 more drops of White Distilled Vinegar to our flask and see the temperature falls! Why should this be?
The Le Chatelier Principle of Equilibrium for gases is no longer taught in Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics, courses because it would expose this fraud. It says, ” If a system has a change in quantity, temperature or pressure, it shifts to minimize the change.” Thus adding CO2 reduces water vapor as it is the only gas that can leave the atmosphere in our temperatures.
Water vapor does 99.8% of all atmospheric heating and like the air we breathe there is nothing politicians can do about it, but lie. When we add CO2 we drive water vapor out. CO2 is 1/7th the absorber of IR energy from sunlight as water vapor. Water is the only compound in air that can leave the atmosphere to maintain the physical balance. When CO2 is added water vapor leaves becoming clouds or rain; the heating function is reduced and the temperature falls. That is the imploding action of our “CO2 Bomb.” It can, and hopefully will, destroy the greatest scam for money and power ever played in the time of man.