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Today, March 11, 1861: Constitution of the Confederate States Adopted

In 1776, thirteen American colonies rebelled against the tyrannical rule of the British government by declaring their independence. To help govern their declared independence, the Continental Congress drafted the nation’s first governing document, the Articles of Confederation in 1777 and finally ratified in 1781. Winning their independence from the British, Congress realized that the Articles of Confederation were inadequate, so in 1787 they drafted the Constitution of the United States.

With the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, a new rebellion emerged with the secession of the southern states starting with South Carolina seceding on December 20, 1860. Eventually a total of 11 states seceded and formed the Confederate States of America.

Like the Founding Fathers in America’s early days, delegates from seven of the seceded states met in Montgomery, Alabama in February 1861 to draft their own governing document.

On March 11, 1861, delegates from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas adopted the Constitution of the Confederate States of America. They used the US Constitution as the basis for their own constitution but made provisions to protect their right to own slaves and the sovereignty of the states.

The differences between the US Constitution and the Confederate Constitution are discussed below. The first difference shows up in the Preamble which reads [Confederate additions or changes in bold]:

“We, the people of the Confederate States, each State acting in its sovereign and independent character, in order to form a permanent federal government, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God do ordain and establish this Constitution for the Confederate States of America.”

The Confederate states wanted to keep individual sovereignty and authority while drastically limiting the power and authority of federal government. They also sought the favor and blessing of God like so many colonial charters had done, but what the Founding Fathers failed to do in the US Constitution. Additionally, they replaced every reference to the United States with Confederate States.

In Article I, Section 1, they further emphasized the limitation of the federal government by changing this:

“All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.”

To this:

“All legislative powers herein delegated shall be vested in a Congress of the Confederate States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.”

In Article I, Section 2, Paragraph 3, they made two changes:

“(3) Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States, which may be included within this Confederacy, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all slaves. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the Confederate States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every fifty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of South Carolina shall be entitled to choose six; the State of Georgia ten; the State of Alabama nine; the State of Florida two; the State of Mississippi seven; the State of Louisiana six; and the State of Texas six.”

In Article I, Section 2, Paragraph 5, they added the following:

“(5) The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment; except that any judicial or other Federal officer, resident and acting solely within the limits of any State, may be impeached by a vote of two-thirds of both branches of the Legislature thereof.”

Article I, Section 3, Paragraph 1 of the US Constitution specified that senators would be appointed by the state legislatures. This practice was still in enforce at the time of the Civil War and wasn’t changed in the US Constitution until the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913. Prior to the 17th Amendment, it wasn’t all that uncommon for state legislatures to unofficially select a senator in waiting so to say, months before the expiration of the terms of sitting senators. To avoid this practice, the Confederates made a change to this paragraph, making it read:

“(1) The Senate of the Confederate States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen for six years by the Legislature thereof, at the regular session next immediately preceding the commencement of the term of service; and each Senator shall have one vote.”

In Article I, Section 3, Paragraph 3, the Confederates removed the nine-year citizenship requirement for the office of senator since the Confederacy hadn’t existed for more than a few months.

Even though the Confederate states insisted on state sovereignty, they recognized the need to maintain the same rules and regulations governing the election of Representatives and Senators. In Article I, Section 4, Paragraph 1, they added a disclaimer to that effect:

“(1) The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof, subject to the provisions of this Constitution; but the Congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the times and places of choosing Senators.”

The only real change made to Article I, Section 6 was to combine two clauses into one, but it did not affect the meaning.

In Article I, Section 7, Paragraph 2, the Confederates gave their president the power to approve sections of a bill without approving the entire bill. We know this today as a line-item veto. Ironically, the US president never has had the power of a line-item veto, although quite a few state governors do. Their revision to this section reads:

“(2) Every bill which shall have passed both Houses, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the Confederate States; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases, the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law. The President may approve any appropriation and disapprove any other appropriation in the same bill. In such case he shall, in signing the bill, designate the appropriations disapproved; and shall return a copy of such appropriations, with his objections, to the House in which the bill shall have originated; and the same proceedings shall then be had as in case of other bills disapproved by the President.”

Substantial changes were made to Article I, Section 8, Paragraph 1. To begin with, the Confederates added a title to Section 8 – ‘The Congress shall have power’. Then they added to stop the imposition of tariffs on foreign goods. In the past, the government often placed tariffs on certain foreign goods which prevented many southerners from purchasing cheaper foreign goods. They also forbid the practice of bounties, which were nothing more than Treasury subsidies used to help support uncompetitive industries. The Confederate revision of this paragraph read:

“(1) To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises for revenue, necessary to pay the debts, provide for the common defense, and carry on the Government of the Confederate States; but no bounties shall be granted from the Treasury; nor shall any duties or taxes on importations from foreign nations be laid to promote or foster any branch of industry; and all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the Confederate States.”

The Confederates also added a lot to Article I, Section 8, Paragraph 3. The changes place limits on Congressional infrastructure spending, again limiting the power of their federal government in favor of state power. They added a provision that allowed for setting of ‘duties’ or a fee to be collected from everyone using waterways within the Confederacy. They understood that even a small and limited federal government needed to raise a certain amount of revenue in order to operate and this was intended to help with that purpose. Their revised paragraph read:

“(3) To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes; but neither this, nor any other clause contained in the Constitution, shall ever be construed to delegate the power to Congress to appropriate money for any internal improvement intended to facilitate commerce; except for the purpose of furnishing lights, beacons, and buoys, and other aids to navigation upon the coasts, and the improvement of harbors and the removing of obstructions in river navigation; in all which cases such duties shall be laid on the navigation facilitated thereby as may be necessary to pay the costs and expenses thereof.”

In Article I, Section 8, Paragraph 4, they added a line saying that they cannot forgive any debts incurred prior to the passage of their constitution. It read:

“(4) To establish uniform laws of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies, throughout the Confederate States; but no law of Congress shall discharge any debt contracted before the passage of the same.”

In Article I, Section 8, Paragraph 7 concerning the establishment of a Post Office, the Confederates added wording to specify that the new Post Office would have to rely on their own generated revenue after a certain date. It read:

“(7) To establish post offices and post routes; but the expenses of the Post Office Department, after the 1st day of March in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and sixty-three, shall be paid out of its own revenues.”

Article I, Section 9, Paragraph 1 was completely re-written since it dealt with the slave trade. In addition, they added a new Paragraph 2 and moved all of the other paragraphs in this section down a number. The new Paragraphs 1 and 2 read:

“(1) The importation of negroes of the African race from any foreign country other than the slaveholding States or Territories of the United States of America, is hereby forbidden; and Congress is required to pass such laws as shall effectually prevent the same.”

 

“(2) Congress shall also have power to prohibit the introduction of slaves from any State not a member of, or Territory not belonging to, this Confederacy.”

In this section, their Paragraph 4 corresponds to Paragraph 3 of the US Constitution. The clause added to this section is the most significant change made to the entire document as it gave citizens of the Confederacy the right to own black slaves. It read:

“(4) No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law denying or impairing the right of property in negro slaves shall be passed.”

Desperate for ways to generate revenue for the Confederate government, they added a provision to their Article I, Section 9, Paragraph 6, corresponding to our Paragraph 5, they added a line that allowed for tariffs to be levied on some goods being exported from certain states. It read:

“(6) No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State, except by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses.”

Still driven by the necessity to raise revenue, the Confederates deleted that half of Paragraph 7 (our Paragraph 6) to allow states to impose taxes on domestic ships entering their ports. Our Paragraph 6 reads (the US Constitution does not use paragraph numbers in its text as does the Confederate Constitution) :

“No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.”

Their corresponding Paragraph 7 read:

“(7) No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another.”

After their Paragraph 8 that corresponded to our Paragraph 7, the Confederates added 2 additional paragraphs that dealt with spending and the issuance of currency. The new Paragraphs 9 and 10 read:

“(9) Congress shall appropriate no money from the Treasury except by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses, taken by yeas and nays, unless it be asked and estimated for by some one of the heads of departments and submitted to Congress by the President; or for the purpose of paying its own expenses and contingencies; or for the payment of claims against the Confederate States, the justice of which shall have been judicially declared by a tribunal for the investigation of claims against the Government, which it is hereby made the duty of Congress to establish.”

 

(10) All bills appropriating money shall specify in Federal currency the exact amount of each appropriation and the purposes for which it is made; and Congress shall grant no extra compensation to any public contractor, officer, agent, or servant, after such contract shall have been made or such service rendered.”

At the end of Article I, Section 9, the Confederates added 8 of the 10 Amendments of the Bill of Rights into their constitution. Of those 8 new sections, the only real change they made was the punctuation of Paragraph 13 – our 2nd Amendment. The punctuation change made it read the way modern gun control fanatics like Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton and Michael Bloomberg interpret the 2nd Amendment in that the right to keep and bear arms ONLY applies to people who are part of a militia. This paragraph reads:

“(13) A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.”

Note the punctuation difference with our 2nd Amendment:

“A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.”

The Confederates then added one little paragraph to the end of Article I, Section 9 that I wish was in our Constitution. It restricts every bill to deal with one subject alone. That means no riders, add-ons or 2,000 page bills that cover hundreds of different items. That would eliminate all of the pet projects that Congressmen and women constantly add on to the end of totally unrelated bills. This would save hundreds of billions of taxpayer dollars.

Just imagine what that would have meant to Obamacare. Every aspect of the massive socialist tome would have to have been separated out into individual bills, which would have made it much easier to slice and dice those unpopular aspects such as the individual mandate, employer mandate, contraception mandate and all of the nearly 20 additional taxes created or raised by the Affordable Care Act.

I wonder if it would be possible to push for an amendment to add the Confederate’s Article I, Section 9, Paragraph 20 to our Constitution. It read:

“(20) Every law, or resolution having the force of law, shall relate to but one subject, and that shall be expressed in the title.”

In Article I, Section 10, Paragraph 1, the Confederates omitted 4 words – ‘emit bills of credit.’ The omission would allow states to issue their own paper currency which at the time was considered to be a bill of credit.

In Article I, Section 10, Paragraph 3, the Confederates made a lot changes that again allowed them to raise revenue by taxing ships using southern waterways. The revisions also allow individual states to enter in treaties with each other involving waterways. In our Constitution, all river waterways are controlled by the federal government. Their Paragraph 3 read:

“(3) No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on tonnage, except on seagoing vessels, for the improvement of its rivers and harbors navigated by the said vessels; but such duties shall not conflict with any treaties of the Confederate States with foreign nations; and any surplus revenue thus derived shall, after making such improvement, be paid into the common treasury. Nor shall any State keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay. But when any river divides or flows through two or more States they may enter into compacts with each other to improve the navigation thereof.

Article II, Section 1, Paragraph 1 differs by limiting the term of office for president to one 6-year term only. It reads:

“(1) The executive power shall be vested in a President of the Confederate States of America. He and the Vice President shall hold their offices for the term of six years; but the President shall not be reeligible. The President and Vice President shall be elected as follows:”

The Confederates next used our 12th Amendment and then divided it up into Paragraphs 3, 4 and 5 of Article II, Section 1, which read:

“(3) The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of Government of. the Confederate States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 4th day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in case of the death, or other constitutional disability of the President.”

 

“(4) The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice President shall be the Vice President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then, from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice.”

 

“(5) But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice President of the Confederate States.”

In Article II, Section 1, Paragraph 7 (corresponding to our Paragraph 5) was changed to allow for someone born in the US prior to December 20, 1860 to serve as president. This was necessary since the Confederacy didn’t exist prior to then. It read:

“(7) No person except a natural-born citizen of the Confederate; States, or a citizen thereof at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, or a citizen thereof born in the United States prior to the 20th of December, 1860, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the limits of the Confederate States, as they may exist at the time of his election.”

The President of the United States has the authority to dismiss or fire any Cabinet member he wants. The power to do so are written in the laws that created the departments. The Confederates added a new paragraph in Article II, Section 2, Paragraph 3 spelling out the powers of President concerning the removal of any civil servant. The new Paragraph 3 read:

“(3) The principal officer in each of the Executive Departments, and all persons connected with the diplomatic service, may be removed from office at the pleasure of the President. All other civil officers of the Executive Departments may be removed at any time by the President, or other appointing power, when their services are unnecessary, or for dishonesty, incapacity. inefficiency, misconduct, or neglect of duty; and when so removed, the removal shall be reported to the Senate, together with the reasons therefor.”

In Article II, Section 2, Paragraph 3 of the US Constitution, it gives the president the power to make recess appointments when Congress is not in session. In Paragraph 4 of the Confederate Constitution, they added a caveat that forbids the president from using a recess appointment on anyone whom the Senate had previously rejected for that appointment. It read:

“(4) The President shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session; but no person rejected by the Senate shall be reappointed to the same office during their ensuing recess.”

In Article II, Section 3, Paragraph 1 of the US Constitution, it opens up with ‘He shall…” The Confederates replaced ‘He’ with ‘The President.’

In Article III, dealing with the judiciary, the Confederates worked in our 11th Amendment with Section 2, Paragraph 1. In doing so, they omitted ‘in law and equity’ and then clarified the terms by which a federal court could hear a lawsuit between a state and person who is not a resident of the state. They also made a change that allows any citizen to sue a state, not just those that are residents of the state. Our Paragraph 1 and 11th Amendment read:

“The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;–to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;–to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;–to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;–to Controversies between two or more States;– between a State and Citizens of another State;–between Citizens of different States;–between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.”

 

“Amendment XI

 

“The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.”

The Confederate Paragraph 1 read:

“(1) The judicial power shall extend to all cases arising under this Constitution, the laws of the Confederate States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the Confederate States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more States; between a State and citizens of another State, where the State is plaintiff; between citizens claiming lands under grants of different States; and between a State or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects; but no State shall be sued by a citizen or subject of any foreign state.

Article IV, Section 2, Paragraph 1 was significantly altered to assure the rights of slave owners to move and take their slaves with them. This was most likely done to eliminate the possibility of another lawsuit like the famous Dred Scott case. It read:

“(1) The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States; and shall have the right of transit and sojourn in any State of this Confederacy, with their slaves and other property; and the right of property in said slaves shall not be thereby impaired.”

The implications of the change made to Article IV, Section 2, Paragraph 2 is curious at best. It deals with the extradition of someone charged with a crime in one state who flees to another state. The Confederates added a qualifier that could be interpreted to mean that anyone charged with a federal crime who flees to another state cannot be extradited back to the state where the crime was committed. It doesn’t say that, but the wording seems to imply such. It read:

“(2) A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime against the laws of such State, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.”

Article IV, Section 2, Paragraph 3 was reworded to include specific mention of slaves trying to escape from one state to seek freedom in another. It read:

“(3) No slave or other person held to service or labor in any State or Territory of the Confederate States, under the laws thereof, escaping or lawfully carried into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor; but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such slave belongs, or to whom such service or labor may be due.”

I find the change made to Article IV, Section 3, Paragraph 1 to be a curious one. In our Constitution, the admission of a new state only takes a majority vote of Congress. The Confederates, whom I would have thought would want to add new states to the Confederacy, changed this paragraph to make it harder for the admission of a new state, not easier. It read:

“(1) Other States may be admitted into this Confederacy by a vote of two-thirds of the whole House of Representatives and two-thirds of the Senate, the Senate voting by States; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress.”

In Article IV, Section 3, Paragraph 2, our Constitution specifies that the disposal or dealings involving any federal lands shall not be understood in any way as being prejudiced. I wonder if today’s EPA is aware of this? The Confederates revised this paragraph is such a way as to nullify the promise of no federal prejudiced involving land transactions. Our Paragraph 2 reads:

“The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.”

The Confederate revision read:

“(2) The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations concerning the property of the Confederate States, including the lands thereof.”

Between Paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article IV, Section 3, the Confederates added a new paragraph that solidified the rights of slave owners within the tiers of governments, states and territories. It read:

“(3) The Confederate States may acquire new territory; and Congress shall have power to legislate and provide governments for the inhabitants of all territory belonging to the Confederate States, lying without the limits of the several Sates [sic]; and may permit them, at such times, and in such manner as it may by law provide, to form States to be admitted into the Confederacy. In all such territory the institution of negro slavery, as it now exists in the Confederate States, shall be recognized and protected be Congress and by the Territorial government; and the inhabitants of the several Confederate States and Territories shall have the right to take to such Territory any slaves lawfully held by them in any of the States or Territories of the Confederate States.”

Article V, Section 1, Paragraph 1, spells out the process for amending the Constitution. In the US Constitution, an amendment can be passed by a two-thirds vote of both the House and Senate or by two-thirds of the states. In the Confederate Constitution, amendments can only be passed by the states, not the Congress. Another major difference is the calling for a Constitutional Convention. In the US Constitution, it requires two-thirds of the states to call for a convention, but in the Confederate Constitution it only required 3 states. It read:

“(1) Upon the demand of any three States, legally assembled in their several conventions, the Congress shall summon a convention of all the States, to take into consideration such amendments to the Constitution as the said States shall concur in suggesting at the time when the said demand is made; and should any of the proposed amendments to the Constitution be agreed on by the said convention, voting by States, and the same be ratified by the Legislatures of two- thirds of the several States, or by conventions in two-thirds thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the general convention, they shall thenceforward form a part of this Constitution. But no State shall, without its consent, be deprived of its equal representation in the Senate.”

In Article VI, Section 1, the Confederates added a Paragraph 1 in which it established their new constitution as being the legal successor to their earlier Provincial Constitution. It read”

“1- The Government established by this Constitution is the successor of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, and all the laws passed by the latter shall continue in force until the same shall be repealed or modified; and all the officers appointed by the same shall remain in office until their successors are appointed and qualified, or the offices abolished.”

At the end of Article VI, the Confederates placed our 9th and 10th Amendments which read:

“5- The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people of the several States.”

 

“6- The powers not delegated to the Confederate States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people thereof.”

In Article VII, Section 1, Paragraph 1, the Confederates changed the number of states in the convention to ratify the Constitution from 9 nine in ours to 5 states in theirs. Then they added Paragraph 2 which spelled out that the Provisional Constitution and government would remain in effect until such time as the Congress set an election date for a permanent Congress and president. Once that happened, then this Confederate Constitution would officially replace the Provisional Constitution. It read:

“2- When five States shall have ratified this Constitution, in the manner before specified, the Congress under the Provisional Constitution shall prescribe the time for holding the election of President and Vice President; and for the meeting of the Electoral College; and for counting the votes, and inaugurating the President. They shall, also, prescribe the time for holding the first election of members of Congress under this Constitution, and the time for assembling the same. Until the assembling of such Congress, the Congress under the Provisional Constitution shall continue to exercise the legislative powers granted them; not extending beyond the time limited by the Constitution of the Provisional Government.”

Ironically, the Confederate Congress never set a date for a permanent election. They were too preoccupied with fighting the Union. In the end the Union prevailed and this Constitution never became official.

 

Sources for the above include: Confederate Constitution Adopted; Constitution of the Confederate States; The Constitution of the Confederate States of America; The Confederate Constitution; What the Confederate States Constitution Says about SlaveryMajor Differences Between the Union & Confederate Governments; The Declaration of Causes of Seceding States; Ordinances of Secession of the 13 Confederate States of America;

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Dave Jolly

R.L. David Jolly holds a B.S. in Wildlife Biology and an M.S. in Biology – Population Genetics. He has worked in a number of fields, giving him a broad perspective on life, business, economics and politics. He is a very conservative Christian, husband, father and grandfather who cares deeply for his Savior, family and the future of our troubled nation.

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