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Constitution of the Republic of Nicaragua

Published in Managua on January 9, 1987, Updated as of December 19, 2005

The President of the Republic

He informs the people of Nicaragua to the Constituent National Assembly has consulted with the people, discussed and approved the following:

PREAMBLE

WE,

Representatives of the people of Nicaragua, gathered in Constituent National Assembly,

RECALLING the struggle of our indigenous ancestors.

The spirit of Central American unity and the fighting tradition of our people who, inspired by the example of General Jose Dolores Estrada, ANDRES CASTRO and ENMANUEL Mongalo, defeated the filibuster rule and US intervention in the National War.

The anti-interventionist exploits of Benjamin Zeledon.

The General of Free Men, Augusto C. Sandino, Father of the Popular and Anti-imperialist revolution.

The heroic action of Rigoberto Lopez Perez indicator beginning of the end of the dictatorship.

The example of CARLOS FONSECA, the highest continuation of the legacy of Sandino, founder of the Sandinista National Liberation Front and head of the Revolution.

In all generations of Heroes and Martyrs who forged and developed the liberation struggle for national independence.

On behalf of the Nicaraguan people; of all parties and democratic, patriotic and revolutionary organizations of Nicaragua; its men and women; of workers and peasants; his glorious youth; his heroic mothers; of Christians from their faith in God they have committed and inserted into the struggle for liberation of the oppressed; their patriotic intellectuals; and all their productive work that contribute to the defense of the Fatherland.

Of those who struggle and offering their lives against imperialist aggression to ensure the happiness of future generations.

By institutionalizing the gains of the revolution and the building of a new society that eliminates all kinds of exploitation and achieve economic equality, political and social of Nicaraguans and absolute respect for human rights.

BY COUNTRY, FOR THE REVOLUTION, FOR THE UNITY OF THE NATION AND PEACE. We promulgate THE FOLLOWING CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF NICARAGUA.

TITLE I

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

CHAPTER ONE

Article 1– The independence, sovereignty and national self-determination are inalienable rights of the people and foundations of the Nicaraguan nation. All foreign interference in the internal affairs of Nicaragua or any attempt to undermine these rights threaten the life of the people. It is people’s right and duty of all citizens, preserve and defend with arms in hand if necessary, the independence of national self-determination.

Article 2- National sovereignty resides in the people, the source of all power and maker of his own destiny. The people exercise democracy deciding and participating freely in the construction of economic, political and social system that best suits their interests. The power is exercised by the people directly and through their freely elected according to universal, equal, direct, free and secret suffrage representatives.

Article 3- The struggle for peace and the establishment of a just international order are inalienable commitments of the Nicaraguan nation. Therefore we oppose all forms of colonialist and imperialist domination and exploitation and are in solidarity with all people struggling against oppression and discrimination.

Article 4- The Nicaraguan people have formed a new state to promote their interests and ensure their social and political gains. The state is the main instrument of the people to eliminate all forms of submission and exploitation of human beings, to promote the material and spiritual progress of the whole nation and prevail ensure the interests and rights of the majority.

Article 5- The State guarantees the existence of political pluralism, a mixed economy and nonalignment. Political pluralism assures the existence and participation of all political organizations in the economic, political and social affairs of the country, without ideological restrictions, except those which seek a return to the past or advocate the establishment of a similar political system. The mixed economy ensures the existence of different forms of ownership; public, private, associative, cooperative and communal; all must be based on the best interests of the nation and contribute to the creation of wealth to meet the needs of the country and its inhabitants. Nicaragua bases its international relations on the principle of non-alignment, in the search for peace and respect for the sovereignty of all nations; for this, it is opposed to any form of discrimination is anti-colonialist, anti-imperialist, anti-racist and rejects any subordination of one State to another State.

TITLE II 

ON THE STATE

CHAPTER ONE

Article 6- Nicaragua is an independent, free, sovereign, unitary and indivisible state.

Article 7- Nicaragua is a democratic, participatory and representative Republic. They are organs of government: the Legislature, the Executive, the Judiciary and the Electoral Power.

Article 8- The people of Nicaragua are multi-ethnic and integral part of the Central American nation.

Article 9- Nicaragua firmly supports the Central American unity, supports and promotes all efforts to achieve political and economic integration and cooperation in Central America, as well as efforts to establish and preserve peace in the region. Nicaragua aspires to the unity of the peoples of Latin America and the Caribbean, inspired by the ideals of Bolivar and Sandino. Accordingly, it will participate with other Central and Latin American countries in creating or choosing the bodies necessary for such purposes. This principle is governed by laws and treaties.

Article 10- The country is located between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the republics of Honduras and Costa Rica. It includes the islands and cays, soil and subsoil, the territorial sea, the continental shelf, the submarine shelf, airspace and stratosphere. The precise boundaries of the country are set by laws and treaties.

Article 11- Spanish is the official language of the state. The languages ​​of the Communities of the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua also conform official use in cases established by law.

Article 12- The city of Managua is the capital of the Republic and the seat of the state powers. In extraordinary circumstances, they may be established in other parts of the country.

Article 13- The symbols are: the national anthem, the flag and emblem established by law determining their characteristics and applications.

Article 14- The State has no official religion.

TITLE III

NICARAGÜENSE NATIONALITY

CHAPTER ONE

Article 15- Nicaraguans are national or nationalized.

Article 16- Nationals are:

Those born in the national territory. The children of foreigners are exempted in diplomatic service, foreign service officials of international organizations or those sent by their governments to play t Rabajos in Nicaragua, unless they opt for Nicaraguan nationality.

1- The children of a Nicaraguan father or mother.

2- Those born abroad of a father or mother who were originally Nicaraguan, provided they so request after reaching the age of majority or emancipation.

3- Infants born to foreign parents on board Nicaraguan aircraft and ships, provided they so request.

Article 17- The Central American origin have the right to opt for Nicaraguan nationality if they need to renounce their nationality and may apply to the competent authority when residing in Nicaragua.

Article 18- The National Assembly may declare foreign nationals who have distinguished themselves for outstanding achievements in the service of Nicaragua.

Article 19- Foreigners may be nationalized, have renounced their nationality, by applying to the competent authority when it satisfies the requirements and conditions established by the laws of matter.

Article 20- No national may be deprived of his citizenship, except when he voluntarily acquires another; Nor will lose his Nicaraguan nationality when acquiring that of another Central American country or dual nationality agreement.

Article 21- The acquisition, loss and recovery of nationality shall be regulated by law.

Article 22- In cases of dual nationality is applicable under the treaties and the principle of reciprocity.

TITLE IV

RIGHTS, DUTIES AND GUARANTEES OF PEOPLE IN NICARAGUA CHAPTER I INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS

ARTICLE 23- The right to life is inviolable and inherent to the human person. In Nicaragua there is no death penalty.

Article 24- Everyone has duties to the family, community, country and humanity. The rights of each person are limited by the rights of others, for the safety of all and by the just demands of the common good.

Article 25- Everyone has the right:

1- A personal freedom.

2- A safety.

3- The recognition of its legal personality and capacity.

Article 26- Everyone has the right:

1- In his private life and his family.

2- The inviolability of the home, correspondence and communications.

3- To respect for his honor and reputation.

The home may be searched only by written authority competent judge or order expressly authorized to do so; to prevent the commission of a crime and to prevent damage to persons or property, in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.

The law establishes the cases and procedures for the examination of private documents, books and their annexes if indispensable to clarify knowledge of matters before the courts or for tax reasons.

The letters, documents and other private papers illegally subtracted no effect in court or out of it.

Article 27- All persons are equal before the law and have equal rights to protection. There will be no discrimination based on birth, nationality, political views, race, sex, language, religion, opinion, origin, economic status or social condition. Foreigners have the same rights and duties as Nicaraguans, with the exception of political rights and established by law; they can not interfere in the political affairs of the country. The State respects and guarantees the rights recognized in this Constitution to all persons within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction.

Article 28- Nicaraguans who are temporarily abroad enjoy the protection and security of the state through their diplomatic representations.

Article 29- Everyone has the right to freedom of conscience, thought and to profess a religion or not. Nobody can be subject to coercion which would penoscabar these rights or be compelled to testify creed, ideology or beliefs.

Article 30- Nicaraguans have the right to freely express their thoughts in public or in private, individually or collectively, in oral, written or by any other means.

Article 31- Nicaraguans have the right to move and take up residence anywhere in the country; to freely enter and leave the country.

Article 32- No one is obliged to do what the law does not command, nor prevented from doing what it does not prohibit.

Article 33- No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention or be deprived of his liberty except for reasons established by law and in accordance with legal procedure.

Therefore:

1- The arrest may be made only by written order of a competent judge or the authorities expressly empowered by law, except in cases of flagrante delicto.

2- Each detainee is entitled:

a- To be informed promptly, in a language or language which he understands and in detail, of the reasons for his arrest and of any charges against him, to his family of his arrest are informed; and also it is treated do with respect for the inherent dignity of the human being.

b- To be brought before the authority expressly empowered by law within a maximum period of seventy-two hours.

3- After serving their sentence, nobody remain in detention after release order issued by the competent authority.

4- Any detention illegal because accountability from the respective authority.

5- The relevant agencies shall ensure that the accused and convicted keep prison at different centers.

Article 34- Every defendant is entitled, on equal terms, to the following minimum guarantees:

1- A to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law is proved.

2- To be tried without delay by a competent tribunal established by law.

3- Unless subtracted from a competent judge, except as provided in this Constitution and laws.

4- A defense that their involvement and guarantee the beginning of the process and to have adequate time and facilities for his defense.

5- A that will have legal assistance when the first intervention has not appointed defense; or if it were not there, before I call for edict. The defendant has the right to communicate freely and privately with his counsel.

6- A free assistance of an interpreter if he can not understand or speak the language used by the court.

7- Not to be compelled to testify against himself or against a spouse or partner in a stable de facto union, or relatives within the fourth degree of consanguinity or second degree, or to confess guilt.

8- At that dictates acquittal or conviction within legal terms, in each of the relevant bodies.

9- To appeal to a higher order to have his case reviewed court when he has been convicted of any crime; no longer be prosecuted for the offense for which he was convicted or acquitted again.

10- Not to be tried or sentenced for an act or omission which, when committed, is not previously qualified in law expressly and unequivocally as a punishable manner, or punished with penalty not provided for by law. Criminal proceedings shall be public, but in exceptional cases the press and the general public may be excluded for reasons of morals, public order or national security.

Article 35- Minors may not be subject or object of judgment or subjected to any legal proceedings. The juvenile offenders can not be taken to penal rehabilitation centers and will be served in facilities under the responsibility of the specialized agency. A law shall regulate this matter.

Article 36- Everyone has the right to have his physical, mental and moral integrity respected. No one shall be subjected to torture, procedures, penalties and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. The violation of this right constitutes a crime and will be punished by law.

Article 37- The penalty does not transcend the person convicted. No penalty or penalties which, individually or together, lasting over thirty years will be imposed.

Article 38- The law is not retroactive except in criminal matters when favorable to the defendant.

Article 39- In Nicaragua, the prison system is humanitarian and has as main objective the transformation of the inner to reintegrate into society. Through progressive system it promotes family unity, health, educational, cultural advancement and productive occupation with financial compensation for the procedure. The penalties have a rehabilitative nature. Women convicts in prisons saved prison than those of men and shall ensure that the guards of the same sex.

Article 40- No one shall be held in servitude. Slavery and trafficking of any kind are prohibited in all their forms.

Article 41- No one shall be detained for debt. This principle shall not limit the orders of a competent judicial authority for breach of duties. It is the duty of any national or foreign citizen pay what they owe.

Article 42- In Nicaragua the right of asylum is guaranteed to those persecuted for their struggle for democracy, peace, justice and human rights. The law will determine the status of asylum or political refugee in accordance with international conventions ratified by Nicaragua. In the event that the expulsion of a refugee would remember you can never be sent back to the country where he was persecuted.

Article 43- In Nicaragua there is no extradition for political or criminal offenses associated with them, according to Nicaraguan rating. Extradition for common crimes is regulated by law and international treaties. Nicaraguans may not be extradited from the national territory.

Article 44- Nicaraguans have the right to personal property that guarantees the goods necessary and essential for their development.

Article 45- Persons whose constitutional rights have been violated or are at risk of violence, can appeal for habeas corpus or amparo, as appropriate and in accordance with the Law of Amparo.

Article 46- In the country everyone enjoys state protection and recognition of the rights inherent in the human person, unrestricted respect, promotion and protection of human rights and the full exercise of the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; in the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of the United Nations and the American Convention on Human Rights of the Organization of American States.

CHAPTER II

POLITICAL RIGHTS

Article 47- Citizens are Nicaraguans who have reached sixteen years of age. Only citizens enjoy political rights enshrined in the Constitution and laws, no limitations other than those established for reasons of age. Citizen rights are suspended by imposing severe corporal punishment or specific additional penalties and civil interdiction final judgment.

Article 48- the unconditional equality of all Nicaraguans in the enjoyment of political rights, in the exercise of those rights and the fulfillment of their duties and responsibilities is established, there is absolute equality between men and women. The state is obliged to remove the obstacles to de facto equality among Nicaraguans and their effective participation in political, economic and social life of the country.

Article 49- In Nicaragua have right to organize workers in the cities and countryside, women, youth, agricultural, professionals, technicians Communities producers artisans, intellectuals, artists, religious, Atlantic Coast and the inhabitants in general, without discrimination, in order to achieve the realization of their aspirations in their own interests and participate in building a new society. These organizations will be formed according to participatory and elective will of the citizens, they have a social function and may or may not have partisan nature, according to their nature and purpose.

Article 50- Citizens have the right to participate on equal terms in public affairs and in State management. Through the law will be ensured, nationally and locally, the effective participation of the people.

Article 51- Citizens have the right to elect and be elected in periodic elections and to hold public office.

Article 52- Citizens have the right to petition, denounce irregularities and make constructive criticism, individually or collectively, to the branches of government or any authority; to get a prompt response and resolution or they receive the decision within the time limits established by law.

Article 53- The right of peaceful assembly; the exercise of this right does not require prior permission.

Article 54- The right of assembly, demonstration and public mobilization in accordance with the law.

Article 55- Nicaraguan citizens have the right to organize or join political parties, in order to participate, and opt to exercise power.

CHAPTER III

SOCIAL RIGHTS

Article 56- The State shall pay particular attention in all its programs defenders of the dignity, honor and sovereignty of the nation, their relatives, and fallen in defense of the same, according to the laws .

Article 57- Nicaraguans have the right to work according to human nature.

Article 58- Nicaraguans have the right to education and culture.

Article 59- The Nicaraguan have an equal right to health. The State shall establish the basic conditions for its promotion, protection, recovery and rehabilitation. The State directing and organizing the programs, services and health activities and promote popular participation in defense of it. Citizens have the obligation to abide by the health measures to be determined.

Article 60- Nicaraguans have the right to live in a healthy environment; it is the duty of the State to preserve, conserve and rescue the environment and natural resources.

Article 61- The State guarantees Nicaraguans the right to social security for their comprehensive protection against the social contingencies of life and work, in the form and manner prescribed by law.

Article 62- The State shall endeavor to establish programs for the disabled for their physical, psychosocial and vocational rehabilitation and job placement.

Article 63- is the right of Nicaraguans to be protected against hunger. The State shall promote programs that ensure adequate food availability and equitable distribution thereof.

Article 64- Nicaraguans have the right to decent, comfortable and safe housing that guarantees family privacy. The State shall promote the realization of this right.

Article 65- Nicaraguans have the right to sport, physical education, recreation and leisure. The State will promote the practice of sport and physical education, through organized and massive participation of the people, for the formation of Nicaraguans. This will be done with special programs and projects.

Article 66- Nicaraguans have the right to truthful information. This right includes freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas, either orally, in writing, graphically or through any other media of his choice.

Article 67- The right to information is a social responsibility and exercised with strict respect for the principles established in the Constitution. This right can not be subject to censorship, but to subsequent liability established by law.

Article 68- The media are at the service of national interests. The State shall promote access of people and their organizations to the media and prevent them from being subjected to foreign interests or the economic monopoly of power of any group. The existence and operation of the means of public, corporate and private media are not subject to censorship and are subject to the provisions of the law.

Article 69- All persons, individually or collectively, have the right to express their religious beliefs in private or in public, through worship, practice and teaching. No one can elude law enforcement or prevent others from exercising their rights and fulfilling their duties by invoking religious beliefs or rules.

CHAPTER IV

RIGHTS OF THE FAMILY

Article 70- The family is the fundamental unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

Article 71- is the right of Nicaraguans to form a family. The law shall regulate this right and protest.

Article 72- Marriage and stable de facto union are protected by the State; They rest on voluntary agreement between a man and a woman and may be dissolved by mutual consent or by the will of one party. The law will regulate this matter.

Article 73- Family relations rest on respect, solidarity and absolute equality of rights and responsibilities between men and women. Parents must attend home maintenance and comprehensive training of children through joint efforts, with equal rights and responsibilities. The children in turn, are obliged to respect and help their parents. These duties and rights shall be fulfilled in accordance with the relevant legislation.

Article 74- The State grants special process of human reproduction protection. Women shall have special protection during pregnancy and shall leave with pay and all appropriate social security benefits. No one may deny employment to women on grounds of pregnancy or dismiss them during or in the postnatal period; all in accordance with the law.

Article 75- All children have equal rights. No discriminatory designations used on filiation. In the common law, they have no value provisions or classifications that diminish or deny the equality of children.

Article 76- The State shall establish programs and develop special centers to ensure children; they are entitled to preventive measures, protection and education that his condition requires, on the part of his family, society and the state.

Article 77- The elderly are entitled to protection measures by the family, society and the state.

Article 78- The State protects responsible paternity and maternity. The right to investigate paternity and maternity are established.

Article 79- The right of adoption is established in the exclusive interest of the integral development of the child. The law will regulate this matter.

CHAPTER V

LABOR RIGHTS

Article 80- Work is a right and a social responsibility. The labor of Nicaraguans is the key to meet the needs of society, of people and is a source of wealth and prosperity of the nation average. The State shall seek the full and productive employment of all Nicaraguans under conditions that guarantee the fundamental rights of the person.

Article 81- Workers have the right to participate in the management of companies, through their organizations and in accordance with the law.

Article 82- Workers have the right to working conditions that specifically assure them:

1- Equal pay for equal work under identical conditions appropriate to their partner responsibility, without discrimination for political, religious, social, gender or any other kind, which assures a welfare support on human dignity c.

2- Be paid in legal tender in the workplace.

3- The inembargabilidad the minimum wage and social benefits, except for protecting your family and in the terms established by law.

4- Work conditions that guarantee physical integrity, health, hygiene and the reduction of occupational hazards to enforce occupational worker safety.

5- Eight-hour work day, weekly rest, holidays, remuneration for national holidays and thirteenth month salary in accordance with the law.

6- Job security under the law and equal opportunity to be promoted, without any limitations other than factors related to time, service, ability, efficiency and accountability.

7- Social security for comprehensive protection and means of subsistence in cases of disability, old age, occupational hazards, sickness and maternity; and their families in case of death, in the form and manner prescribed by law.

Article 83- recognizes the right to strike.

Article 84- on child labor in tasks that can affect normal development or compulsory education cycle is prohibited. It will protect children and adolescents against any kind of economic and social exploitation.

Article 85- Workers have the right to their cultural, scientific and technical training; the State facilitated through special programs.

Article 86- All Nicaraguans have the right to freely choose and practice their profession or trade and to choose a workplace without any requirement that academic title and it fulfills a social function.

Article 87- In Nicaragua there is full freedom of association. Workers may organize voluntarily in unions, which shall be constituted as required by law. No worker is obliged to belong to a particular union or relinquish it belongs. Full union autonomy is recognized and trade union immunity is respected.

Article 88- is guaranteed the inalienable rights of workers so that in defense of their individual or collective interests, held with employers:

1- Individual contracts.

2- Collective agreements. Both in accordance with the law.

CHAPTER VI

RIGHTS OF THE ATLANTIC COAST COMMUNITIES

Article 89- The Communities of the Atlantic Coast are an inseparable part of the Nicaraguan people and as such enjoy the same rights and the same obligations. The Communities of the Atlantic Coast have the right to preserve and develop their cultural identity within national unity; establish their own forms of social organization and administer their local affairs according to their traditions. The State recognizes the communal forms of land ownership of the Communities of the Atlantic Coast. It also recognizes the enjoyment, use and enjoyment of the waters and forests of their communal lands.

Article 90- The Communities of the Atlantic Coast have the right to free expression and preservation of their languages, art and culture. The development of their culture and values ​​enriches the national culture. The State shall establish special programs for the exercise of these rights.

Article 91- The State has an obligation to enact laws intended to promote actions to ensure that no Nicaraguan is discriminated against because of their language, culture and origin.

TITLE V

NATIONAL DEFENCE

CHAPTER ONE

ARTICLE 92- It is the duty and right of all Nicaraguans to fight for the defense of life, homeland, justice and peace for the integral development of the nation.

Article 93- The Nicaraguan people have the right to arm themselves to defend its sovereignty, independence and revolutionary gains. It is the duty of the state to direct, organize and arm the people to guarantee this right.

Article 94- The defense of the homeland and the Revolution lies in the mobilization and organized participation of all the people in the struggle against their aggressors. The State shall promote the massive incorporation of the people to the various forms and tasks of national defense.

Article 95- The Popular Sandinista Army has a national character and must protect, respect and obedience to the present Constitution. The Sandinista Popular Army is the armed wing of the people and direct heir of the Defense of National Sovereignty Army. The State prepares, organizes and directs popular participation in the armed defense of the country, through the Sandinista Popular Army. There can be no more armed forces in the country that established by the law, which will regulate the bases of the military organization.

Article 96- Nicaraguans have the duty to take up arms to defend our homeland and the achievements of the people against attacks and threats of a foreign country or directed and supported by any country forces. Patriotic Military Service, according to the terms of the law is established.

Article 97- The fight against externally promoted actions to subvert the revolutionary order built by the Nicaraguan people and confronting criminal and antisocial activities, are an integral part of the defense of the revolution. The State creates the security and internal order, whose duties are determined by law.

TITLE VI

NATIONAL ECONOMY, LAND REFORM AND PUBLIC FINANCES CHAPTER I NATIONAL ECONOMY

Article 98- The primary role of the state in the economy is materially develop the country, eliminate backwardness and inherited dependence; improve people’s living conditions and make a more just distribution of wealth.

Article 99- The State directs and plans the national economy to secure and defend the interests of the majority and guide them in accordance with the objectives of economic and social progress. The Central Bank, the National Financial System, the Insurance and Reinsurance and Foreign Trade, as instruments of economic management for the state area unwaivable.

Article 100- The State enacted the Foreign Investment Law, in order to contribute to economic and social development without detriment to national sovereignty.

Article 101- The workers and other productive sectors, have the right to participate in the development, implementation and monitoring of economic plans.

Article 102- Natural resources are national patrimony. Environmental preservation and conservation, development and rational exploitation of natural resources belong to the State; it may enter into contracts for the rational exploitation of these resources, when the national interest so requires.

Article 103- The State guarantees the democratic coexistence of the forms of public ownership, private, cooperative, associative and community; they are all part of the mixed economy, are subject to the higher interests of the nation and fulfill a social function.

Article 104- The companies organized under any of the forms of ownership established in this Constitution, are equal before the law and the economic policies of the state. The economic plans of enterprises must be developed with the participation of workers. The economic initiative is free.

Article 105- It is the duty of the State to regulate fair and rational distribution of basic consumer goods and supply, both in the field and in the city. Speculation and hoarding are incompatible with the socio-economic system and constitute serious crimes against the people.

CHAPTER II

LAND REFORM

Article 106- Land reform is essential for a fair distribution of land and strategic means for the revolutionary transformations, national development and social progress of Nicaragua instrument. The State guarantees the development of agrarian reform to ensure full compliance with the historic claims of farmers.

Article 107- The land reform abolished the large estates, rent-seeking, inefficiency in the production and exploitation of farmers and promote forms of ownership compatible with economic and social objectives of the nation, established in this Constitution.

Article 108- The land is guaranteed to all owners who work productively and efficiently. The law establishes special rules and exceptions, in accordance with the aims and objectives of the land reform.

Article 109- The State shall promote voluntary association of peasants in agricultural cooperatives, regardless of sex and according to their resources provide the necessary material means to raise their technical and productive capacity, to improve the living conditions of the peasants.

Article 110- The State shall promote the voluntary inclusion of small and medium agricultural producers to plans for economic and social development of the country, under associative and individual forms.

Article 111- Farmers and other productive sectors have the right to participate in defining the policies of agrarian reform, through their own organizations.

CHAPTER III

PUBLIC FINANCES

Article 112- The General Budget of the Republic has annual validity and its purpose is to regulate the revenues and expenditures of public administration. The budget should show the different sources and destinations of revenues and expenses, which will keep the agreement and determine spending limits State organs. You can not create any extra spending but by law and by creating and setting while the resources to finance them.

Article 113- The budget will be prepared by the President and approved by the National Assembly in the annual Budget Act, in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution and the law.

Article 114- The tax system should take into consideration the distribution of wealth and income, as well as the needs of the state.

Article 115- The tax must be created by law to establish its incidence, tax rate and guarantees to taxpayers. The State not required to pay taxes that are not previously established by law.

TITLE VII

EDUCATION AND CULTURE

CHAPTER ONE

Article 116- The education aims full and comprehensive training of Nicaraguan; giving it a critical, scientific and humanist awareness; develop your personality and sense of dignity and enable him to assume the tasks of common interest necessary for the progress of the nation; therefore, education is fundamental to the transformation and development of the individual and society factor.

Article 117- Education is a single democratic, creative and participatory process, which links theory with practice and manual with intellectual labor and promotes scientific research. It is based on our national values, knowledge of our history, of reality, of national and universal culture and the constant development of science and technology; cultivates the values ​​of the new Nicaraguan in accordance with the principles laid down in this Constitution, the study should be promoted.

Article 118- The state promotes the participation of the family, the community and the people in education and guarantees the support of the mass media to it.

Article 119- Education is unwavering role of the state. Including planning, direction and organization. The national education system functions in an integrated manner and in accordance with national plans. Its organization and functioning are determined by law. The State should develop and train at all levels and the technical and professional specialties necessary for the development and transformation of the country staff.

Article 120- It is essential role of the national teaching the creative application of educational plans and policies. Teachers are entitled to living and working conditions commensurate with their dignity and with the important social role; They will be promoted and encouraged in accordance with the law.

Article 121- The access to education is free and equal for all Nicaraguans. Basic education is free and compulsory. The Communities of the Atlantic Coast have access in their region to education in their mother tongue in the levels to be determined, in accordance with national plans and programs.

Article 122- Adults will enjoy opportunities to educate and develop skills through training and education programs. The State shall continue its educational programs to eradicate illiteracy.

Article 123- Private institutions dedicated to teaching can operate at all levels, subject to the provisions laid down in this Constitution.

Article 124- Education in Nicaragua is secular. The State recognizes the right of private schools dedicated to teaching and are of religious orientation, to teach religion as an extracurricular subject.

Article 125- The Higher Education enjoys financial, organizational and administrative autonomy in accordance with the law. Academic freedom is recognized. The State promotes free creation, research and dissemination of science, arts and letters.

Article 126- The State should promote the recovery, development and strengthening of national culture, sustained by creative participation of the people. The state will support national culture in all its expressions, whether collective or individual creators.

Article 127- The artistic and cultural creation is free and unrestricted. The cultural workers are free to choose forms and modes of expression. The State shall endeavor to provide them with the means to create and disseminate their work and protect their copyright.

Article 128- The State protects the archaeological, historical, linguistic, cultural and artistic heritage of the nation.

TITLE VIII

OF THE ORGANIZATION OF THE STATE

CHAPTER I

GENERAL PRINCIPLES

Article 129- The Legislative, Executive, Judicial and Electoral, are independent of one another and coordinate harmoniously, subordinate only to the supreme interests of the nation and the provisions of this Constitution.

Article 130- No charges granted to those who exercise functions other than those conferred by the Constitution and laws. Any government official must account for their assets before taking office and then deliver it. The law governing this matter.

Article 131- Officials of the four powers directly or indirectly elected, accountable to the people for the proper performance of their duties and must inform their work and official activities. They must attend and listen to their problems and try to solve them. The civil service must be exercised in favor of the interests of the people. Each officer has a duty to perform its functions effectively and honestly and be responsible for their acts or omissions. The civil service to be regulated by law is established.

CHAPTER II

LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

Article 132- Legislative power is exercised by the National Assembly by delegation and popular mandate. The National Assembly is composed of ninety Representatives with their respective alternates, elected by universal, direct and equal, free and secret regional constituencies by applying the proportional representation system, regulated by the Electoral Law. The number of Representatives may be increased in accordance with the general population census in accordance with the law.

Article 133- Also part of the National Assembly as owners representatives and alternate respectively, candidates for President and Vice President who, having participated in the corresponding election, not elected; in this case, they should have in the national constituency with a number of votes equal to or higher than the average of the regional electoral quotient.

Article 134- To be representative to the National Assembly requires the following qualities:

1- Being Nacional de Nicaragua.

2- In full enjoyment of their civil and political rights.

3- Be at least twenty years old.

Article 135- No representative to the National Assembly can get concession from the State or be agent or manager of public, private or foreign companies contracting with the State. The violation of this provision nullifies the concessions or advantages obtained and causes the loss of representation.

Article 136- The representatives to the National Assembly shall be elected for a term of six years, to be reckoned from the installation, the ninth of January following the election year.

Article 137- The Representatives and alternates, elected to integrate the National Assembly pay the oath of office before the President of the Supreme Electoral Council. The National Assembly will be inaugurated by the Supreme Electoral Council.

Article 138- The powers of the National Assembly:

1- Draft and approve laws and decrees, as well as reform and repeal existing ones.

2- The authentic interpretation of the law.

3- Decreeing amnesty and pardons, as well as reductions or commutations of sentences.

4- Order reports by the President or Vice Ministers of State and presidents or directors of autonomous and governmental institutions. In the same way you can order your personal e int erpelación appearance.

5- Grant and cancel legal status to entities of civil or religious nature.

6- Meet, discuss and approve the General Budget of the Republic in accordance with the procedure laid down in the Constitution and the law.

7- Elect the judges of the Supreme Court and the Ministers and alternates of the Supreme Electoral Council of lists proposed by the President of the Republic.

8- Choose the Comptroller General of the Republic from a list proposed by the President of the Republic.

9- Know, admit and decide on the resignation or permanent absence of the representatives to the National Assembly.

10- Know and accept the resignations or dismissals of judges of the Supreme Court, the justices of the Supreme Electoral Council and the Comptroller General of the Republic.

11- Approve or disapprove international treaties.

12- Regulate all matters relating to national symbols.

13- Create honorary orders and distinctions of national character.

14- Create and execute their own orders of national character.

15- Solemn receive the President or the Vice President of the Republic session to hear the annual report.

16- Delegating legislative powers to the President during the recess of the National Assembly, according to Decree Law Delegatory Annual legislative functions. An exception with regard to the codes of the Republic.

17- Choose your Board.

18- Create permanent, special and investigative commissions.

19- Propose grace pensions and grant honors distinguished servants of the fatherland and humanity.

20- Determine the political and administrative division of the country.

21- Knowing the policies and plan for economic and social development.

22- Fill permanent vacancies of the President or Vice President.

23- Authorize the removal of the country the President of the Republic, when its absence is more than a month.

24- Hear and resolve complaints against officials who enjoy immunity.

25- Enact its General Statute and Rules of Procedure.

26- Other duties conferred by the Constitution and laws.

Article 139- The Representatives shall be exempt from responsibility for their opinions and votes cast in the National Assembly and enjoy immunity under the law.

Article 140- Have Representatives bill to the National Assembly and the President of the Republic; Also the Supreme Court and the Supreme Electoral Council, in its areas of competence. This right of initiative shall be regulated by the General Statute and the Rules of Procedure of the National Assembly.

Article 141- The quorum for sessions of the National Assembly is half plus one of its members. The bills required for approval of the affirmative vote of a simple majority of the Representatives present. Once approved, the bill will be sent to the President for assent, promulgation and publication.

Article 142- The President may veto all or part of a bill within fifteen days of receipt. If you do not exercise this power, nor sanction, promulgate and publish the project, the President of the National Assembly sent to publish the law.

Article 143- A bill partially or totally vetoed by the President must return to the National Assembly stating the reasons for the veto; it may reject the vote of half plus one of its representatives, in which case the President of the National Assembly sent to publish the law.

CHAPTER III

EXECUTIVE

Article 144- The executive power is exercised by the President, who is Head of State, Head of Government and Supreme Commander of the Defence and Security Forces of the Nation.

Article 145- The Vice President shall perform the duties delegated by the President and replace him in office in case of temporary or permanent absence.

Article 146- The election for President and Vice President is done by universal, equal, direct, free and secret suffrage. They shall be elected who obtain the relative majority of votes.

Article 147- To be President or Vice President is required of the following qualities:

1- Be a national of Nicaragua.

2- In full enjoyment of their civil and political rights.

3- Over twenty-five years old.

Article 148- The President and the Vice President shall serve for a period of six years, to be reckoned from his inauguration on January 10 of the year following the election year; within this period shall be immune.

Article 149- In the temporary absence of the President, the Vice President will take office. When the fault is short, the Vice President shall assume the office of President of the Republic for the rest of the period and the National Assembly will elect a new Vice President. In the temporary and simultaneously the President and Vice missing, assume the functions of the former President of the National Assembly or the person acting by operation of law. In case of permanent absence of the Vice President of the Republic, the National Assembly shall appoint his legal substitute in office. If definitely shall fail the President and the Vice President, will assume the functions of the former President of the National Assembly or his substitute. The National Assembly shall appoint to be replaced within the first seventy-two hours from the vacancy occurred. The so appointed shall serve for the remainder of the period.

Article 150- The powers of the President of the Republic the following:

1- Observe and enforce the constitution and laws.

2- Represent the nation.

3- Exercise the right of legislative initiative and the right to veto, as set out in this Constitution.

4- To issue executive orders having the force of law on tax and administrative character.

5- Prepare the General Budget of the Republic and promulgate once you approve or known, as appropriate, the National Assembly.

6- Appoint and dismiss Ministers and Deputy Ministers of State, Ministers Delegate of the Presidency, presidents or directors of autonomous and governmental institutions and other officials whose appointment or removal is not otherwise in the Constitution and the laws.

7- Assume legislative powers for the National Assembly, during its recess, delegate it.

8- To direct the international relations of the Republic, to celebrate treaties, conventions or agreements and appoint heads of diplomatic missions.

9- Enact and enforce a state of emergency in the chaos foreseen by this Constitution and submit the decree to the National Assembly for ratification within a period not exceeding forty-five days.

10- Regulating laws.

11- Grant honorary orders and decorations of national character.

12- Organize and direct the government and preside over cabinet meetings.

13- Directing the country’s economy, determine the policy and economic and social program.

14- Triples propose to the National Assembly for the election of judges of the Supreme Court of Justice, the Judges of the Supreme Electoral Council and the Comptroller General of the Republic.

15- Direct the National personally or through the Vice Assembly’s annual report and other reports and special messages.

16- The other conferred the Constitution and laws.

Article 151- The President of the Republic determines the number, organization and competence of the ministries of state, autonomous and governmental institutions. Ministers, vice ministers and presidents or directors of autonomous and governmental institutions are immune.

Article 152- To be a Minister, Deputy Minister, President or Director of autonomous entities and government requires the following qualities:

1- Be a national of Nicaragua.

2- In full enjoyment of political and civil rights.

3- Over twenty-five years old.

Article 153- The Ministers, Vice Ministers, presidents or directors of autonomous and governmental institutions are responsible for their acts, in conformity with the Constitution and laws.

CHAPTER IV

GENERAL OF THE REPUBLIC

Article 154- The General Comptroller of the Republic is the governing body of the control system of public administration and the People’s Property Area.

Article 155- The General Comptroller of the Republic:

1- Set the control system proactively ensures the proper use of the funds.

2- The successive control over the management of the General Budget of the Republic.

3- Monitoring, review and evaluation of the administrative and financial management of public bodies, subsidized by the State and public or private companies with public capital participation.

Article 156- The General Comptroller of the Republic shall enjoy operational and administrative autonomy and will be directed by the Comptroller General of the Republic; it will yield annual report to the National Assembly and enjoy immunity.

Article 157- The law determines the organization and functioning of the Comptroller General of the Republic.

CHAPTER V

THE JUDICIARY

Article 158- Justice emanates from the people and shall be imparted on their behalf by the Judicial Branch made ​​up of the courts established by law.

Article 159- The courts form a unitary system whose highest body is the Supreme Court. The exercise of the jurisdiction of the courts corresponds to the Judiciary. The exercise of which is regulated by law military jurisdiction is established.

Article 160- The administration of justice guarantees the principle of legality; protecting and safeguarding human rights by law enforcement in matters within its competence or processes.

Article 161- To be a justice of the Supreme Court of Justice, requires the following qualities:

1- Be a national of Nicaragua.

2- Be a lawyer.

3- In full enjoyment of political and civil rights.

4- Over twenty-five years old.

Article 162- The period of the Judges shall be six years and may only be removed from office on the grounds provided by law. Judges enjoy immunity.

Article 163- The Supreme Court shall be composed of at least seven judges, elected by the National Assembly from lists proposed by the President. Judges will take up office before the National Assembly upon the oath of office. The president of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President of the Republic, among the judges elected by the National Assembly.

Article 164- The powers of the Supreme Court:

1- Organize and direct the administration of justice.

2- Hear and determine the ordinary and extraordinary actions brought against decisions of the courts of the Republic, in accordance with procedures established by law.

3- Hear and decide the constitutional complaints for violation of the rights established in the Constitution, according to the Law of Amparo.

4- Hear and determine the resources of unconstitutionality of the law, filed in accordance with the Constitution and the Law of Amparo.

5- Appoint the judges of the Courts of Appeal and Judges of the Courts of the Republic, according to the procedures stipulated by law.

6- Issue its internal rules and appoint the staff of its dependence.

7- The other powers conferred by the Constitution and laws.

Article 165- Magistrates and judges in their judicial activity, are independent and owe obedience only to the Constitution and the law; They shall be governed inter alia by the principles of equality, publicity and right of defense. Nicaragua justice is free.

Article 166- The administration of justice is organized and operated with popular participation, which will be determined by law. Members of the courts, whether lawyers or not, has the same powers in the exercise of their judicial functions.

Article 167- The rulings and decisions of the courts and judges are unavoidable compliance to state authorities, organizations and natural and legal persons concerned.

CHAPTER VI

ELECTORAL

Article 168- Al Electoral corresponds exclusively the organization, management and oversight of elections, plebiscites and referendums.

Article 169- The Electoral Branch is composed of the Supreme Electoral Council and subordinate electoral bodies.

Article 170- The Supreme Electoral Council is composed of five judges with their respective alternates, elected by the National Assembly from lists proposed by the President. The National Assembly will choose the President of the Supreme Electoral Council, from among the elected judges.

Article 171- To be a justice of the Supreme Electoral Council requires the following qualities:

1- It is a national of Nicaragua.

2- In full enjoyment of their civil and political rights.

3- Over twenty-five years old.

Article 172- The President and other Judges of the Supreme Electoral Council shall hold the office for a period of six years from his inauguration; within this period they are immune.

Article 173- The Supreme Electoral Council has the following powers:

1- Organizing and conducting elections, plebiscites or referendums that may be held in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and the law.

2- Appoint members of the other electoral bodies, according to the Electoral Law.

3- Prepare the electoral calendar.

4- Implement the constitutional and legal provisions concerning the electoral process.

5- Hear and determine ultimately the resolutions issued subordinate electoral bodies and to submit complaints and disputes of political parties.

6- Dictate in accordance with the law of matter, the relevant measures to ensure that elections are carried out safely for political parties participating in the elections.

7- We request the relevant agencies, security conditions for political parties participating in the elections.

8- Conduct the official count of the votes cast in elections, plebiscites and referendums; and make the final declaration of the results.

9- Issue its own regulations.

10- The other conferred the Constitution and laws.

Article 174- The judges of the Supreme Electoral Council and alternates will take up their positions before the President of the National Assembly prior oath of office.

TITLE IX

POLITICAL ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION

CHAPTER I

OF THE MUNICIPALITIES

Article 175- The national territory is divided for administrative purposes into regions, departments and municipalities. The laws of matter will determine the extent, number, organization, structure and operation of the various constituencies.

Article 176- The municipality is the basic unit of political administrative division of the country. The law will determine their number and extension.

Article 177- The government and the administration of the municipalities, for municipal authorities, who enjoy autonomy without prejudice to the powers of the central government.

Article 178- The period of the municipal authorities is six years from the inauguration of office before the Supreme Electoral Council.

Article 179- The State shall promote the full and harmonious development of the various parts of the country.

CHAPTER II

COMMUNITIES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST

Article 180- The Communities of the Atlantic Coast have the right to live and develop under the forms of social organization that correspond to their historical and cultural traditions. The State guarantees to the communities the enjoyment of their natural resources, the effectiveness of their forms of communal property and the free election of their authorities and representatives. It also guarantees preservation of their cultures and languages, religions and customs.

Article 181- The State shall organize by means of a law, the regime of autonomy in the regions inhabited by the Communities of the Atlantic Coast to exercise their rights.

TITLE X

SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION, ITS REFORM AND CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

CHAPTER I

OF THE CONSTITUTION

Article 182- The Constitution is the fundamental law of the Republic; other laws are subordinate to it. They will have no value laws, treaties, orders or provisions which conflict with or alter its provisions.

Article 183- No state power, government agency or official shall other authority, power or jurisdiction conferred by the Constitution and laws of the Republic.

Article 184- Constitutional Laws are: The Electoral Act, the Emergency Law and the Law of Amparo, to be issued under the force of the Constitution of Nicaragua.

Article 185- The President may suspend, in whole or in part of the country, the rights and guarantees enshrined in the Constitution in case of war or when they demand the security of the nation, economic conditions or in the event national catastrophe. The suspension decree will force the state of emergency, for a fixed and renewable. The Emergency Law regulate its mode. During the state of emergency will be power of the President of the Republic approved the General Budget of the Republic and send it to the National Assembly for its information.

Article 186- The President may not suspend the rights and guarantees set out in Articles 23, 24, 25 paragraph 3), 26 paragraph 3), 27, 29, 33 paragraph 2.1) and end of paragraphs 3 to 5 ), 34 except numbers 2 and 8), 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60 , 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67 first paragraph, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 84, 85, 87, 89, 90 and 91.

CHAPTER II

CONSTITUTIONAL CONTROL

Article 187- Appeals for unconstitutionality against any law, ordinance or regulation that opposes prescribed by the Constitution, which may be filed by any citizen is established.

Article 188- The remedy of amparo is established against any provision, act or decision and in general against every act or omission of any official authority or agent of the same that violates or attempts to violate the rights and guarantees in the Constitution.

Article 189- The writ of habeas corpus is established in favor of those whose liberty, physical integrity and security are violated or are at risk of violence.

Article 190- Amparo Act regulate the remedies provided in this chapter.

CHAPTER III

CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM

Article 191- The National Assembly is empowered to partially amend this Constitution and to hear and decide on the overall reform initiative it. The partial reform initiative run is for the President of the Republic or a third of the representatives to the National Assembly. The total reform initiative is half plus one of the representatives to the National Assembly.

Article 192- The partial reform initiative must indicate the article or articles that are intended to reform state reasons; it must be sent to a special commission to deliver its opinion within no more than sixty days. The reform bill will then receive the expected process for the formation of the law. The proposal for partial reform must be discussed in two terms.

Article 193- The total reform initiative will follow the same procedures set out in the previous article, when it is conducive to their presentation and opinion. Upon approval of the overall reform initiative, the National Assembly set a deadline for the call for constituent assembly elections. The National Assembly remain in office until the installation of the new National Constituent Assembly. While not approved by the Constituent National Assembly the new Constitution, continue in effect the present Constitution.

Article 194- The approval of the partial reform will require the affirmative vote of sixty percent of Representatives. In the case of approval of the overall reform initiative two thirds of the total of Representatives is required. The President of the Republic shall promulgate the partial reform and in this case may not exercise the right to veto.

Article 195- The constitutional reform laws will be in accordance with the procedure for the partial reform of the Constitution, with the exception of the requirement for the two legislatures.

TITLE XI

FINAL AND TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

SOLE CHAPTER

Article 196- This Constitution shall take effect upon its publication in the Official Gazette, and repealing Fundamental Statute of the Republic, the Statute of Rights and Guarantees of Nicaraguans and any other provision of law to oppose it.

Article 197- This Constitution shall be widely publicized in the official language of the country; likewise it is disclosed in the languages ​​of the communities of the Atlantic Coast.

Article 198- The existing law will remain in effect in all that this Constitution does not prohibit it, until it is modified.

Article 199- The Special Courts were working on the effective date of this Constitution, as they come under the jurisdiction of the judiciary. The appointment of its members and its procedures will be determined by the laws that established.

Also the ordinary courts continue to operate in the way they do, while the principle of collegiality with popular representation is not implemented. This principle can be applied progressively in the country, according to the circumstances.

Article 200- the current administrative political division of the country will be retained until the relevant law is enacted.

Article 201- The deputies of the elected National Assembly on February 25, 1990, will be installed by the Supreme Electoral Council on April 24 of that year, ending the period of which were elected on November 4, 1984 and meet their own period under Article 136 Cn.

The President and the Vice President of the elected Republic on February 25, 1990, will take up their positions giving the oath of office before the President of the National Assembly on April 25 of that year, ending the period of which were elected on November 4, 1984 and fulfill its own period, in accordance with Article 148 of the Constitution. (1)

Article 202- The autograph of this Constitution shall be signed in four copies by the President and deputies of the National Assembly and the President of the Republic. They are saved in the presidency of the National Assembly, the Presidency of the Republic, President of the Supreme Court and the Presidium of the Supreme Electoral Council, and each will have an authentic text of the Constitution Nicaragua. The President of the Republic shall publish in the Official Gazette.

Given in the Hall of Sessions of the National Assembly in Managua, a nineteen day of November 1986.

Given in the Hall of Sessions of the National Assembly in Managua, a nineteen day of November 1986.

“In 25 years, all arms against the aggression”

BOARD OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY

CARLOS NUNEZ TELLEZ

PRESIDENT

DAVILA DIAZ MAURICIO HERRERA LETICIA

VICE VICE

CERDA DOMINGO SOLIS RAFAEL SALGADO SANCHEZ

SECRETARY SECRETARY

FAJARDO JUAN TIJERINO

SECRETARY

Carlos Mejía Godoy – Heriberto RODRIGUEZ MARIN – ORLANDO LOPEZ PINEDA – RAMON SANABRIA RYE – PRADO IRELA Bernheim – FILEMON HERNANDEZ MUÑOZ – ROSARIO LOPEZ ALTAMIRANO – JARQUIN FRANCISCO RAMIREZ – RYE CARLOS GARCIA – ELIGIO MARADIAGA BLAS PALACIOS ESPINOZA CORRALES – ZAPATA EDUARDO ALTAMIRANO – SPINAL VICTORINO REYES – MARIA TERESA MARTINEZ DELGADO – JULY GUILLEN RAMOS – JUANA SANTOS ROQUE Bervis – BRAVO LUIS SERRANO – GUEVARA ONOFRE LOPEZ – JOSE LUIS O. Villavicencio – JOSE MARIA ORTIZ CERDA – RAMIRO LACAYO MONTEALEGRE – LUIS ROCHA URTECHO – HUMBERTO SOLIS BARKER – HELP MARTINEZ SUAREZ – NATHAN GOMEZ SEVILLA – SIXTO ULLOA DONA – EUGARRIOS MANUEL VELASQUEZ – DANILO AGUIRRE SOLIS – JOSE MARIA RUIZ COLLADO – VARGAS DAMASO Loáisiga – ACEVEDO ROSA ANGELA VASQUEZ – VEGA GUSTAVO ADOLFO VARGAS – CHAVEZ RAFAEL ALVAREZ – BERTHA CHAVEZ ROSA FLORES JACINTO ZAMBRANA LACAYO – SANCHEZ ENRIQUE ARANA – LF. ALVARO GONZALEZ FLORES – MENA FRANCISCO AGUIRRE – JULY MARENCO CALDERA – ROGELIO RAMIREZ MERCADO – Wilfredo LOPEZ – PALMA MENDOZA YADIRA SARAVIA – SEQUEIRA ALEJANDRO HERNANDEZ – ADRIAN RAMIREZ TELLEZ – MIGUEL GONZALEZ HERNANDEZ – SERAFIN GARCIA TORRES – HERMOGENES BLANDON RODRIGUEZ – ERASMO MONTOYA LEIVA – ALFONSO LOPEZ LOPEZ – CHAVARRIA LUIS MOREIRA – JAIME PEREZ O’NEIL ALTAMIRANO – ORLANDO CURL ESPINOZA – BENIGNA MENDIOLA SEQUEIRA – DOROTEA WILSON THATUM HAZEL WHITE LAU – TAYLOR RAY HOOKER – AGUIRRE GABRIEL MARIN – EDWIN ILLESCAS SALINAS – ULISES TERAN NAVAS – MENDOZA GUSTAVO RAFAEL CORDOVA H. RIVAS – ALFARO GERARDO SILVA – Bermudez WHITE BELT – RUIZ JOSE R. Quintanilla – JOSE DANIEL AGUILAR BRENES – URBINA LUCAS DIAZ – ROGER C. ARGUELLO RIVAS – CORONADO EDUARDO PEREZ – CONSTANTINE B. PEREIRA – SANTIAGO VEGA JULIO GARCIA MELENDEZ – HERMIDA MACARIO LOPEZ ESTRADA – CARLOS GARCIA ALONSO – LARIOS RAMON RUIZ – LUIS HUMBERTO GUZMAN AREAS – JARQUIN ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ – ALFREDO RODRIGUEZ salguera – RAY LEONCIO GONZALEZ – ALLAN ZAMBRANA SALMERON – BRAVO ARIEL LORIO – LUIS SANCHO SANCHEZ

Therefore, published. Managua, January 9th of 1987.

Daniel Ortega Saavedra

President of the Republic

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Dave Jolly

R.L. David Jolly holds a B.S. in Wildlife Biology and an M.S. in Biology – Population Genetics. He has worked in a number of fields, giving him a broad perspective on life, business, economics and politics. He is a very conservative Christian, husband, father and grandfather who cares deeply for his Savior, family and the future of our troubled nation.

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